Tag Archive: United Kingdom


The CW's The Flash
First: did you miss ME?

In case you’re wondering where I’ve been, the answer is: BUSY.

My world outside the blogosphere has been chock-full of writing assignments in the tech arena. In parallel to that, there’s developing my own brand of crime and suspense fiction, trying to sell my screenplays, and the whole “trying to have a life” issue.

One of the jobs I did recently was a preview / review of The CW’s “The Flash”, for the UK market. I put it out through the Xtreme Entertainment Network, a start-up based in London. Xtreme specializes in video games, movies, TV, and related media.

Could be an outfit worth watching. “The Flash” certainly is.

You can check out

My Review, Here…

Peace.

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Bill-The-Sun-Hill

“The Bill” is a police procedural television drama that was broadcast in the UK on the ITV network from 16 October 1984 until 31 August 2010.

The series name originated from “Old Bill”, a London slang term for the police. This was also the show’s original title, before creator Geoff McQueen opted for “The Bill”.

The program stemmed from a one-off drama, called “Woodentop”, which was broadcast in August 1983.

Rather than concentrate on a particular aspect of police work, the show focused on the lives and work of one shift of police officers.

At the time of the series’ conclusion, “The Bill” was the longest-running police procedural television series in the United Kingdom, and at twenty-seven years was among the longest-running of any television series in British history.

Series Origins

“The Bill” was originally conceived in 1983 as a one-off drama by Geoff McQueen. It was picked up for production company Thames Television by Michael Chapman, and renamed from its original title “Old Bill” to “Woodentop”.

Broadcast as part of Thames’ “Storyboard” series on 16 August 1983, “Woodentop” starred Mark Wingett as Police Constable (PC) Jim Carver and Trudie Goodwin as Woman Police Constable (WPC) June Ackland of London’s Metropolitan Police, both attached to the fictional Sun Hill police station.

“Woodentop” impressed the ITV network so much that a full series was commissioned, first broadcast on 16 October 1984. The show consisted of one post-watershed (marking the boundary between family and adult television) installment per week, featuring an hour-long, separate storyline for each episode of the first three seasons.

On serialization, the name of the show changed from “Woodentop” to “The Bill”.

Evolution of the Show

The series format changed to two thirty-minute episodes per week in 1988, increasing to three a week from 1993.

From 1998, “The Bill” returned to hour-long episodes, which later became twice-weekly. At this point, the series was able to explore much more of the characters’ personal lives.

The change also allowed “The Bill” to become more reflective of modern policing with the introduction of officers from ethnic minorities (most notably, the new superintendent, Adam Okaro). It also allowed coverage of the relationship between homosexual Sergeant Craig Gilmore and PC Luke Ashton.

In 2005, Johnathan Young took over as executive producer, and the serial format was dropped. “The Bill” returned to stand-alone episodes with more focus on crime and policing than the personal lives of the officers.

Overkill

The first official episode of “The Bill” was titled “Funny Ol’ Business – Cops & Robbers”.

The opening sequence consisted of two police officers, one male, one female, walking down a street, as images of Sun Hill were interspersed between them. It featured the first version of the series iconic theme tune, “Overkill”, which was composed by Charlie Morgan and Andy Pask.

Through the years of the show’s evolution, this basic tune was repackaged several times until 2009, when the classic “Overkill” theme was replaced by a new one created by Simba Studios.

Here’s one version, courtesy of YouTube:

In deference to the fans, a specially commissioned remix of “Overkill” was used for “The Bill”‘s final episode on 31 August 2010.

Sun Hill

“The Bill” is set in and around Sun Hill police station, in the fictional “Canley Borough Operational Command Unit” in East London. Series creator Geoff McQueen claimed that he named Sun Hill after a street in his home town of Royston, Hertfordshire.

The fictional suburb of Sun Hill is located in the fictional London borough of Canley in the East End, north of the River Thames. The Borough of Canley is roughly analogous to the real-life London Borough of Tower Hamlets.

Sun Hill has a London E1 postcode, which corresponds to the real-life areas of Whitechapel and Stepney.

From the first series, the police station consisted of a set of buildings in Artichoke Hill, Wapping, East London. These buildings were next to the News International plant, and during industrial action there in the winter of 1985–86, there were some altercations between the strikers and actors working on “The Bill” who were mistaken for real police officers.

The production team moved the sets to an old record distribution depot in Barlby Road, North Kensington in North West London. Filming began there in March 1987.

In 1989, the production moved to an old wine distribution warehouse in Merton, South West London. The relocation was disguised on screen by the ‘ongoing’ refurbishment of Sun Hill police station and ultimately, by the explosion of a terrorist car-bomb in the station car-park, which ended up killing one of the characters (PC Ken Melvin).

The Cast of Characters

Over “The Bill”‘s twenty-seven year run, 174 actors have formed part of the series’ main cast. A number of cast members have played multiple roles on the show, in that time.

Some of the more notable residents of Sun Hill were:

Detective Sergeant (DS) Jim Carver:
Actor Mark Wingett played Carver, from 1983 to 2007. The character featured as a Police Constable, in the very first episode of the show. After his marriage to June Ackland (see below) collapsed and he built up gambling debts, the character left Sun Hill.

Sergeant June Ackland:
Trudie Goodwin played PC, later promoted to Sergeant, June Ackland from 1983 to 2007. The character retired in 2007 after her on-screen relationship with Jim Carver came to an abrupt end. When Goodwin left “The Bill” in 2007 she was not only the longest serving cast member, but also held the world record for the longest time an actor has portrayed a police character.

Sergeant Bob Cryer:
Eric Richard played Sergeant Bob Cryer from 1984 to 2001. The character left after having been accidentally shot by then PC Dale Smith. Cryer made brief re-appearances later in the series – including in one storyline involving his niece Roberta, who later joined the station.

Detective Chief Inspector Frank Burnside:
Christopher Ellison played DI (Detective Inspector), later promoted to DCI, Frank Burnside from 1984 to 2000. Amid allegations of corruption and abuse, Burnside made many enemies both at Sun Hill and among the criminal element. The character spawned a brief (six-episodes!) spin-off series called “Burnside”, which followed Frank Burnside in his transfer and promotion to the National Crime Squad.

Detective Constable Tosh Lines:
Kevin Lloyd played DC Tosh Lines from 1988 to 1998. The character was written out as having accepted a position in the Coroner’s Office after Lloyd was sacked from the show for turning up drunk. Lloyd died a week after his dismissal.

Police Constable Reg Hollis:
Jeff Stewart played PC Reg Hollis from 1984 to 2008. The character was written out of the show after resigning on the grounds of having being traumatized by the death of colleagues during a bomb blast. After learning of his axing from the show, actor Stewart attempted suicide on set by slashing his wrists.

Detective Sergeant Don Beech:
Actor Billy Murray played DS Don Beech from 1995 to 2004. The character was a corrupt police officer, notably murdering DS John Boulton, which forced Beech to go on the run, sparking the “Don Beech scandal”.

Sergeant Matt Boyden:
Tony O’Callaghan played Sergeant Matt Boyden from 1991 to 2003. Boyden was shot dead by his daughter’s boyfriend on her instigation, so she could profit from insurance money to fund her drugs habit. This storyline formed the basis for the opening episode of a spin-off series called “M.I.T.: Murder Investigation Team”.

Powerful Stuff

Indeed.

In the UK, working on “The Bill” became something of a rite of passage for television actors.

The finale episodes featured all the cast, and the final scene was specially written so all cast members would be featured.

Here’s a YouTube clip from the series finale, “Respect”:

Following “The Bill”‘s final episode on 31 August 2010, ITV aired a documentary titled “Farewell The Bill” featuring interviews from past and present cast and crew. The special explored the history of the series and gave viewers a behind the scenes look at the filming of the last episode.

This special was later released onto DVD in Australia on 5 October 2011, along with the last two-part episode “Respect”.

Legacy

“The Bill” was Britain’s longest running police drama.

It has been compared to “Hill Street Blues” due to the similar, serialized format that both shows take.

During its 27-year-run, The Bill spawned several spin-off productions and related series in German and Dutch languages, as well as a series of documentaries.

When “The Bill” began, the majority of the UK’s Police Federation were opposed to the show, claiming that it portrayed the police as a racist organization. However, feelings towards the program mellowed, over the years. Some editorial input from the Police Federation was allowed, as was the use of some official police equipment.

“The Bill” did not have permission to use sirens while on location. However, the police uniforms used in the series were genuine – making “The Bill” unique amongst police dramas.

When the series ended, London’s Metropolitan Police Service, after talks with the production company, bought 400 kilograms of police related paraphernalia, including flat caps and stab vests, to prevent them falling into the hands of criminals after the production ceased.

And here’s where this one ceases.

See you next time – I hope.

Till then.

Peace.

Gangsters: Triads

Triads

Triad refers to the many branches of Chinese transnational organized crime organizations based in Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and also in countries with significant Chinese populations, such as the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

The term “Triad” was probably coined by British authorities in colonial Hong Kong, as a reference to the triads’ use of triangular imagery.

While never proven, it is “highly probable” that triad organizations either took after or were originally part of the revolutionary movement called the White Lotus Society.

Triads feature prominently in “Triad Wars” (a.k.a. “Fatal Move”), a martial arts actioner from 2008.

Video comes courtesy of YouTube:

So much for the movies.

Here’s what history has to tell us:

Origins

In the 1760s, the Heaven and Earth Society, a fraternal organization, was founded, and as the society’s influence spread throughout China, it branched into several smaller groups with different names, one of which was the Three Harmonies Society.

These societies adopted the triangle as their emblem, usually accompanied by decorative images of swords or portraits of the legendary Eastern Han Dynasty general Guan Yu. Their aim was to overthrow the Qing Dynasty and restore the Ming Dynasty.

During the 1800s, many such societies were seen as legitimate ways of helping new immigrants from China settle into a new country.

In British Hong Kong, there was a high-level intolerance for secret societies, which were considered a criminal threat.

Secret societies were officially banned by the British government in Singapore during the 1890s, and slowly stamped out by successive colonial governors and leaders over time. The opium trade, prostitution and brothels were also banned.

After World War II, these societies saw a resurgence as gangsters took advantage of uncertainty and growing anti-British sentiment.

Certain Chinese communities, such as some “new villages” of Kuala Lumpur and Bukit Ho Swee in Singapore became notorious for gang violence.

The 20th Century

When the Chinese Communist Party came to power in 1949 in mainland China, law enforcement became stricter, and tough governmental crackdowns on criminal organizations forced the triads to migrate to Hong Kong, then a British colony. It was estimated that in the 1950s, there were about 300,000 triad members in Hong Kong.

Academics at the University of Hong Kong say that most triad societies were established between 1914 and 1939, and that there were once more than 300 in the territory.

Since then, the number of such groups has consolidated to around 50, of which 14 are still regularly in the eye of the police.

By 1951, there were nine main triads operating in Hong Kong, and they had divided the land according to their ethnic groups and geographical locations, with each triad in charge of a region.

The nine triads were Wo Hop To, Wo Shing Wo, Rung, Tung, Chuen, Shing, Sun Yee On, 14K, and Luen.

Each of them had their own headquarters, sub-societies and public fronts.

After the 1956 riots, the Hong Kong government introduced stricter law enforcement and the triads became less active.

Criminal Activities

Triads currently engage in a variety of crimes, ranging from extortion and money laundering to trafficking and prostitution. They are also involved in smuggling and counterfeiting digital goods such as music, video, and software, as well as more tangible goods like clothes, watches, and money.

Triads have been engaging in counterfeiting since the 1880s.

Between the 1960s and 1970s, triads were involved in counterfeiting Chinese currency, often of the Hong Kong 50-cent piece. In the same decade, the gangs were also engaged in copying books (usually expensive ones), and selling them on the black market.

With the advent of new technology and the improvement of the average person’s standard of living, triads have progressed to producing counterfeit goods such as watches, film VCDs / DVDs, and designer apparel like clothing and handbags.

Structure and Organization

Triads use numeric codes to distinguish between ranks and positions within the gang; the numbers are inspired by Chinese numerology based on the I Ching.

“489” refers to the “Mountain” or “Dragon” Master (or “Dragon Head”), while “438” is used for the “Deputy Mountain Master”.

“432” indicates “Grass Slipper” rank, and the Mountain Master’s proxy, “Incense Master”, who oversees inductions into the Triad, and “Vanguard”, who assists the Incense Master.

“426” refers to a “military commander”, also known as a “Red Pole”, overseeing defensive and offensive operations, while “49” denotes the position of “soldier” or rank-and-file member.

The “White Paper Fan” (“415”) provides financial and business advice, and the “Straw Sandal” (“432”) functions as a liaison between different units.

“25” refers to an undercover law enforcement agent or spy from another triad, and has become popularly used in Hong Kong as slang for “informant”.

“Blue Lanterns” are uninitiated members (equivalent to Mafia associates), and do not have a number designation.

Initiation Rituals

As with the Italian Mafia or the Japanese yakuza, Triad members are subject to initiation ceremonies.

A typical ceremony takes place at an altar dedicated to Guan Yu, with incense and an animal sacrifice (usually a chicken, pig or goat).

After drinking a mixture of wine and blood of the animal or the candidate, the member must pass beneath an arch of swords while reciting the triad’s oaths.

The paper on which the oaths are written will be burnt on the altar to confirm the member’s obligation to perform his duties to the gods.

Three fingers on the left hand will be raised as a binding gesture.

Tongs

The word tong means “hall” or “gathering place”.

In North America a tong is a type of organization found among Chinese people living in the United States and Canada. These organizations are described as secret societies or sworn brotherhoods, and are often tied to criminal activity.

In most American Chinatowns, if one can read Chinese, one can find clearly marked tong halls, many of which have had affiliations with Chinese crime gangs, especially in the 1990s.

Tongs follow the pattern of secret societies common to southern China, and many are connected to a secret society called the Tiandihui, which follows this pattern.

Tongs are similar to triads (which are also connected with the Tiandihui), except that they originated among early immigrant Chinatown communities independently, rather than as extensions of modern triads.

The first Tongs formed in the second half of the 19th century among the more marginalized members of early immigrant Chinese American communities, for mutual support and protection. These Tongs modeled themselves on triads, but were established without clear political motives. They eventually became involved in criminal activities such as extortion, illegal gambling, drug trafficking, human trafficking, murder and prostitution.

Tongs in North America showed many similarities to Triads of Hong Kong and British-controlled southeast Asia. These included similar initiation ceremonies, and paying respect to the same deities.

Ko-lin Chin outlined that most tongs have a similar organization, and have a headquarters where one can find a president, a vice-president, a secretary, a treasurer, an auditor, and several elders and public relations administrators.

In recent years, some Tongs have reformed to eliminate their criminal elements and have become civic-minded organizations. Today their main aims are to care for their members and their respective communities.

Today tongs are, for the most part, members of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Associations, which provide essential services for Chinatown communities such as immigrant counseling, Chinese schools, and English classes for adults.

International Activities

When Malaysia and Singapore (which have the region’s largest population of ethnic Chinese) first became Crown Colonies, secret societies and triads were common, and controlled the local communities through extortion of “protection money” and illegal money lending.

Triads are also active in other regions with significant overseas Chinese populations (apart from the Chinese mainland, Macau, Taiwan, and Hong Kong).

Triads are known to be operating in countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy and Argentina.

They are often involved in “helping” immigrants enter countries illegally, through human trafficking.

Countermeasures

The Organized Crime and Triad Bureau (OCTB) is a division within the Hong Kong Police Force that is responsible for triad countermeasures.

The OCTB and Criminal Intelligence Bureau work together with the Narcotics Bureau and Commercial Crime Bureau to process data and information collected by their operation units to counter triad leaders.

Other departments involved in countering triad activities include the Customs and Excise Department, Immigration Department and ICAC.

Police actions typically include raids on entertaining establishments under the control of triads, and the placing of operatives deep undercover.

Primary laws in addressing the triad problem are the Societies Ordinance and the Organized & Serious Crimes Ordinance.

The Societies Ordinance was enacted in 1949 to outlaw triads in Hong Kong. It stipulates that any person convicted of professing or claiming to be an office bearer or managing or assisting in the management of a triad can be fined up to HK$1 million and a prison term of up to 15 years.

In Canada, the Guns and Gangs Unit of the Toronto Police Service is a specialized command detective unit that is responsible for handling triads.

At the national (and in some cases provincial) level, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police’s Organized Crime Branch is responsible for investigating all gang related activities, including triads.

The Canada Border Services Agency Organized Crime Unit works with the RCMP to detain and remove non-Canadian triad members.

But the Triad War continues.

This story, however, ends here.

Hope you’ll join me, for the next one.

Peace.

Annie-Oakley

Annie Oakley (August 13, 1860 – November 3, 1926), born Phoebe Ann Moses, was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter.

Oakley’s amazing talent led to a starring role in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show, which led her to becoming the first American female superstar.

Oakley’s most famous trick was being able to repeatedly split a playing card, edge-on, and put several more holes in it before it could touch the ground, while using a .22 caliber rifle, at 90 feet.

During her lifetime, the theater business began referring to complimentary tickets as “Annie Oakleys”. Such tickets traditionally have holes punched into them (to prevent them from being resold), reminiscent of the playing cards Oakley shot through during her sharpshooting act.

Country & Western singing star Reba McEntire played Annie Oakley, opposite Anjelica Houston (as that other famous gunslinging woman, Calamity Jane), in the 1995 TV movie “Buffalo Girls”.

Video comes courtesy of YouTube:

That’s how Hollywood saw it.

Here’s what history has to tell us about the lady:

Annie’s Early Life

Phoebe Ann (Annie) Moses was born in “a [log] cabin less than two miles northwest of Willowdell in Partentown North Star, Ohio”, a rural western border county of Ohio.

Annie’s parents were Quakers of English descent from Hollidaysburg, Blair County, Pennsylvania: Susan Wise, age 18, and Jacob Moses, age 49, married in 1848.

They moved to a rented farm (later purchased with a mortgage) in Patterson Township, Darke County sometime between 1855 and her sister Sarah Ellen’s birth there, in 1857.

Born in 1860, Annie was the sixth of Jacob and Susan’s seven children, but her mother also had another child from a previous relationship.

Her father, who had fought in the War of 1812, died in 1866 at age 65, from pneumonia and overexposure in freezing weather.

Annie’s mother married Daniel Brumbaugh, had a ninth child, Emily, and was widowed for the second time.

On March 15, 1870, at age nine, Annie was admitted to Darke County Infirmary, along with elder sister Sarah Ellen. According to her autobiography, she was put in the care of the Infirmary’s superintendent, Samuel Crawford Edington and his wife Nancy, who taught her to sew and decorate.

Beginning in the spring of 1870, she was “bound out” to a local family to help care for their infant son, on the false promise of fifty cents a week and an education. She spent about two years in near-slavery to them, where she endured mental and physical abuse.

When, in the spring of 1872, she reunited with her family, her mother had married a third time, to Joseph Shaw.

Because of poverty following the death of her father, Annie did not regularly attend school. But later, she did receive some informal education.

She rendered her surname as ending in “ee”, while it appears as “Moses” on her father’s gravestone and in his military record; it is the official spelling by the Annie Oakley Foundation maintained by her living relatives.

Variations in the accepted surname spelling (“Moses”) have included “Mosey”, “Mosie”, and “Mauzy”. There is no known record to substantiate Annie’s vehement assertion that the correct spelling is “Mozee”.

Annie began trapping animals at a young age, and shooting and hunting by age eight, to support her siblings and her widowed mother. She sold the hunted game for money to locals in Greenville, as well as restaurants and hotels in southern Ohio. Her skill eventually paid off the mortgage on her mother’s farm when Annie was 15.

A Bet, and A Marriage

On Thanksgiving Day 1875, the Baughman and Butler shooting act was being performed in Cincinnati.

Traveling show marksman and former dog trainer Francis E. Butler (1850–1926), an Irish immigrant, placed a $100 bet per side (roughly equivalent to US$2,000 in today’s money) with Cincinnati hotel owner Jack Frost, that he, Butler, could beat any local fancy shooter.

The hotelier arranged a shooting match between Butler and the 15-year-old Annie saying, “The last opponent Butler expected was a five-foot-tall 15-year old girl named Annie.” After missing on his 25th shot, Butler lost the match and the bet.

Butler soon began courting Annie, and they married on August 23, 1876. They did not have children.

Joining Buffalo Bill’s Wild West

Annie and Frank Butler lived in Cincinnati, for a time.

Oakley – the stage name she adopted when she and Frank began performing together – is believed to have been taken from the city’s neighborhood of Oakley, where they resided. Some people believe she took on the name because that was the name of the man who had paid her train fare when she was a child.

They joined Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show in 1885. At 5 feet (1.5 m) tall, Oakley was given the nickname of “Watanya Cicilla” by fellow performer Sitting Bull, rendered “Little Sure Shot” in the public advertisements.

During her first engagement with Buffalo Bill’s show, Oakley experienced a tense professional rivalry with rifle sharpshooter Lillian Smith. Being eleven years younger, Smith promoted herself as younger and therefore more bankable than Oakley. Oakley temporarily left Buffalo Bill’s show, but returned after Smith departed.

Around the World

In Europe, she performed for Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, King Umberto I of Italy, Marie François Sadi Carnot (the President of France) and other crowned heads of state.

Oakley had such good aim that, at his request, she knocked the ashes off a cigarette held by the newly crowned German Kaiser Wilhelm II.

The Annie Oakley Foundation suggests that she was not the source of a widely repeated quip related to the event:
“Some uncharitable people later ventured that if Annie had shot Wilhelm and not his cigarette, she could have prevented World War I.”

After the outbreak of World War I, however, Oakley did send a letter to the Kaiser, requesting a second shot. The Kaiser did not respond.

Pioneering Work

Oakley promoted the service of women in combat operations for the United States armed forces. She wrote a letter to President William McKinley on April 5, 1898, “offering the government the services of a company of 50 ‘lady sharpshooters’ who would provide their own arms and ammunition should the U.S. go to war with Spain.”

The Spanish-American War did occur, but Oakley’s offer was not accepted. Theodore Roosevelt, did, however, name his volunteer cavalry the “Rough Riders” after the “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World” where Oakley was a major star.

The same year that McKinley was fatally shot by an assassin (1901), Oakley was also badly injured in a train accident, but she recovered after temporary paralysis and five spinal operations. She left the Buffalo Bill show and in 1902 began a quieter acting career in a stage play written especially for her, “The Western Girl”. Oakley played the role of Nancy Berry and used a pistol, a rifle and rope to outsmart a group of outlaws.

Following her injury and change of career, it only added to Annie’s legend that her shooting expertise continued to increase into her 60s.

Throughout her career, it is believed that Oakley taught upwards of 15,000 women how to use a gun.

Oakley believed strongly that it was crucial for women to learn how to use a gun, as not only a form of physical and mental exercise, but also to defend themselves. She once said: “I would like to see every woman know how to handle [firearms] as naturally as they know how to handle babies.”

Multiple Libel Cases

In 1904, sensational cocaine prohibition stories were selling well.

The newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst published a false story that Oakley had been arrested for stealing, to support a cocaine habit. The woman actually arrested was a burlesque performer who told Chicago police that her name was “Annie Oakley”.

The original Annie Oakley spent much of the next six years winning 54 of 55 libel lawsuits against newspapers. She collected less in judgments than were her legal expenses, but to her, a restored reputation justified the loss of time and money.

Most of the newspapers that printed the story had relied on the Hearst article, and upon learning of the libelous error they immediately retracted the false story with apologies. Hearst, however, tried to avoid paying the anticipated court judgments of $20,000 (around $330,000, adjusted for inflation) by sending an investigator to Darke County with the intent of collecting reputation-smearing gossip from Oakley’s past. The investigator found nothing.

Her Final Years

Oakley continued to set records, into her sixties.

She embarked on a comeback and intended to star in a feature-length silent movie.

In a 1922 shooting contest in Pinehurst, North Carolina, sixty-two-year-old Oakley hit 100 clay targets in a row from 16 yards (15 m).

In late 1922, Oakley and Butler suffered a debilitating automobile accident that forced her to wear a steel brace on her right leg. Yet after a year and a half of recovery, she again performed and set records in 1924.

Her health declined in 1925, and she died of pernicious anemia in Greenville, Ohio at the age of sixty-six on November 3, 1926.

She was buried in Brock Cemetery in Greenville, Ohio.

Butler was so grieved by her death that he stopped eating. He died just 18 days later, on November 21, 1926 in Michigan.

Butler was buried next to Annie.

Annie Oakley was inducted into the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame in Fort Worth, Texas.

Quite the lady.

And quite a story.

I hope you’ll join me, for our next one.

Till then.

Peace.